Main Parts Of Centrifugal Pumps

Parts of Centrifugal Pumps

Parts of Centrifugal Pumps

The main parts of centrifugal pumps can be isolated into the wet end and the mechanical end. The wet end parts of the pump incorporate those that give the hydraulic performance of the pump: the impeller and the casing.

Once in a while, the principal radial bearing can be water-filled. In this case, the bearing can have a place with the wet end. The mechanical quit of the centrifugal pump includes additives that aid the impeller in the casing: the pump shaft, shaft sleeve, sealing, and bearings.

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As an initial step, you may want to read INFO4ALL's article named "Centrifugal Pump: Working Standards, Capability and Diagram" to gain a basic understanding of how these pumps operate.

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This article centers around the main part of centrifugal pumps, on the whole, we will discuss the standards of centrifugal pumps.

Basics of Centrifugal Pumps

A Centrifugal pump is a hydraulic turbomachine that changes over mechanical energy into hydraulic energy utilizing centrifugal force applied to the liquid.  This type of pump is the most normally used pump to transfer liquids from a lower level to a more elevated level.

It is used in a large number of applications, including municipal (water and wastewater plants), agriculture, power plants, petrol and pharmaceutical enterprises, mining, the chemical industry, and many more.

At the point when a mass of fluid rotates by an external force source, it creates some distance from the axis of rotation, and the added hydraulic strain to the fluid enables it to reach a more elevated level.

Centrifugal Pumps can be used for both viscous and non-viscous fluids because of their high productivity.

Working of Centrifugal Pumps

To begin with, the operation of a centrifugal pump needs the preparation step. It means that the suction pipe casing of the pump operates so all the air from the place of liquid with the fluid which is to be pumped is driven out, and no air remains.

The importance of this step is because of the point that the strain delivered by the centrifugal pump is straightforwardly proportional to the thickness of the liquid in contact with it.

Then, the electric motor starts to rotate the impeller while the conveyance valve is as yet kept shut. After opening the valve, the fluid is made to stream toward a path radically outward through the vanes of the impeller toward an external periphery at high speed.

Because of the centrifugal action, a vacuum is created. This causes the fluid to move from the sump to race through a suction line to the eye of the impeller.

Main Components of Centrifugal Pumps

After a short presentation of centrifugal pumps and how they work, we will present the parts of centrifugal pumps exhaustively. As referenced in the presentation, in general, these components can be classified into two gatherings: wet end and mechanical end.

The wet end of a centrifugal pump consists of those parts that decide the pump's hydraulic performance.

Nonetheless, the mechanical end incorporates the parts that hold the impeller inside the casing and seal the casing where the pump shaft passes through. Additionally, these parts enable the impeller rotation that allows the wet end to create stream and tension.

Wet End

In short, the impeller turns rapidly and adds speed to the water. The impeller is placed in the casing. The casing is answerable for changing over the speed created by the impeller rotation into pressure. There are numerous varieties of impellers and casings.


The casing is the shell or lodging safeguarding and supporting the components. In pumps, the casing is a significant part to forestall leakage and even maintain pressure. There are commonly primary sorts of casings: volutes and diffusers.


At the point when fluid enters the external diameter of an impeller, the volute acts to capture its speed and convert the speed into pressure. The accompanying figure shows a schematic construction of a centrifugal pump with a volute casing.

The part of the volute that extends generally adjacent to the impeller is named the cutwater. Starting from the cutwater and transferring counter-clockwise, the gap between the impeller and the volute steadily increases.

This causes the strain to increase inside the volute as the distance increases. Finally, as you reach the point straightforwardly near the cutwater going on clockwise, the strain is at its maximum, and then, at that point, the water rises out of the casing.


Rather than cutwater, diffusers have vanes. While the volutes have two or three places where the casing edge approaches the impeller to create pressure, diffusers usually have many vanes. In the schematic beneath, the quantity of vanes is ten.

While an impeller is situated in the focal point of a volute, in a diffuser casing, an impeller is generally located straightforwardly adjacent to a diffuser and forces water into the vanes.

The working standard of a diffuser is similar to a volute. Diffuser vanes are placed so they start near the external edge of the impeller and gradually extend away from the fringe of the impeller.


Impellers are the rotating parts of centrifugal pumps furnished with vanes or blades which turn and push liquid inside the pump. These components are crucial to changing over energy got from a source.

There are three ways to classify impellers: Specific speed, design, and the positions of the vanes.

Specific Speed

Specific speed (Ns) is the speed at which an impeller with a geometrical similarity to the model yet with a diameter of 1 meter delivers a progression of 1 kg/m3 and 1 meter of total dynamic head.

This value portrays the relationship between the impeller stream and the resulting head. For a centrifugal pump, it is communicated as:

6 Main Parts Of Centrifugal Pumps

Q and H are mass flow rate (kg/m3) and head (m). Also, n represents the rotational speed of the impeller in rpm.

Accordingly, centrifugal pumps are classified into radial, mixed, and axial flow pumps.

The impact of specific speed on the centrifugal pump impeller design (Reference:

In an axial stream impeller, the liquid streams parallel to the shaft. These impellers also are referred to as propellers. They are applicable for high-stream and extremely low-pressure conditions.

Notwithstanding, in a radial stream impeller, the liquid streams perpendicular to the shaft. Radial stream pumps are usually used in multi-stage centrifugal pumps. Also, blended stream pumps operate part radially and part axially.

Diffuser components in radial casings (e.g., volute casings) need to expand as specific speed increases until the stream can be coordinated through the impeller radially. Finally, at high specific speeds, the stream can leave axially.


This classification technique relates to specific speed since the specific speed has an important impact on the physical design of the impeller.

Open and Enclosed Impellers

Impellers can be designed regardless of a cover or cover. Enclosed impellers utilize a top and bottom cover. Nonetheless, impellers with next to no cover are called open impellers.

Also, in a few special pumps, for example, vortex impellers, there are single-cover impellers in solids-handling pumps. These designs just have a top cover, and the vanes are very open to the pumped fluid.

Single-cover impellers are appropriate for purposes where there are countless solids that may obstruct a covered impeller. Notwithstanding, the productivity of single-cover vortex impellers is a lot lower than enclosed impeller designs.

Single-and Double Suction Impellers

In an unmarried-suction layout way that there's an unmarried part of the impeller is designed to soak up the water.

Also, there is another design of impellers where the suction takes place from the two sides of the impeller. The accompanying schematic figure illustrates the distinction between the single-and double-suction impellers.

A double-suction design is more balanced than a single-suction design because the two-sided suction of fluid balances The axial forces carried out at the impeller and transferred to the pump bearings thru the shaft.

Vane Design

A few impellers have various vanes and small internal clearances. These are usually designed for water services between the radial and Francis-vane (an impeller type between the radial and blended stream) specific speed ranges.

Be that as it may, different impellers have only a couple of vanes as well as large internal clearances, which are usually called solids-handling impellers. They generally operate in the ranges between the Francis-vane and blended stream pumps.

Different types are designed with a single vane and without a lower cover (screw impellers) or with vanes that are not extended exceptionally away down into the pumped fluid (vortex impellers). These each is designed for the usage of excessive attention of solids.

Different types of impellers don't have a cover at all, top or bottom (e.g., in the axial-stream field).

Vanes Positions

Accordingly, Impellers can be open, semi-open, and shut.

Open Impellers

In open impellers, the vanes are installed free on the two sides. This form of the impeller is structurally weak. The typical utilization of open impellers is in small-diameter, low-estimated pumps and those handling suspended solids.

Semi-Open Impellers

The vanes in semi-open impellers on one side are free and enclosed on the opposite side. Hence, the cover gives mechanical strength.

They additionally paint with better efficiencies than open impellers. They can be applied in medium-diameter pumps containing fluids with small concentrations of suspended solids.

An important feature of semi-shut impellers is a small clearance existing between the impeller vanes and the casing.

Enclosed Impellers

The vanes of enclosed impellers are placed between two disks, all inside a single casting. They perform with excessive efficiencies relevant in huge pump gadgets requiring low Net Positive Suction Head.

The enclosed impeller is a more complicated and expensive design because of bothering the impeller development and the additional wear rings required.

Mechanical End

The mechanical part of a centrifugal pump incorporates the shaft, shaft sleeve, seals, and bearings.


The impeller is attached to a shaft. The shaft is often made of steel or stainless steel to support the impeller. The spans of the shafts should be measured accurately.

A small shaft may increase pump vibration, lessen bearing life, cause shaft breakage, and shorten the overall pump life. Then again, a curiously large shaft can unnecessarily increase the pump costs.

Shaft Sleeve

Usually, a portion of the shaft located beneath the seals is covered with a shaft sleeve. The shaft sleeve is made of metal, generally bronze or stainless steel.

It is designed to operate with the ability to slide or thread on the shaft. The shaft sleeve is applied to appropriately situate the impeller on the shaft as well as to safeguard the shaft.


The place where the shaft passes through the casing is the stuffing box. Sealing should be used to seal the distance between the shaft and the stuffing box wall.

Mechanical seals are different in performance, design, and cost. The easiest seal incorporates a couple of components: gland, stationary seal ring (or mating ring), rotating seal ring (or primary ring), and spring.


The gland is located around the shaft of the pump and rushes to the face of the stuffing box straightforwardly on the pump casing.

Stationary Seal Ring

The stationary seal ring is sealed to the gland and fixed just around the pump shaft by the gland.

Rotating Seal Ring

The rotating seal ring is sealed to the shaft utilizing an elastomeric component and is squeezed against the stationary seal ring by a spring.


The spring applies strain on the rotating seal ring by squeezing against a retaining cut or the collar that is fastened to the pump shaft.

As the stationary face is sealed to the gland, and the rotating face is sealed to the shaft, the main passage for the fluid to leak from the stuffing box is to stream between the rings being squeezed together by the spring.

By turning the pump shaft, the rotating face betrays the stationary face. A small amount of the pumped fluid goes between the faces yet evaporates because of the heat delivered by the rotating seal faces.

This small portion of the fluid is adequate to hold the seal faces cool and lubricated. When the seal faces the area unit clean, smooth, and greased, they'll eliminate the majority of escape between the shaft and therefore the packing box wall.


In general, centrifugal pumps are furnished with standard ball-type anti-grinding bearings lubricated by grease or oil. These bearings are the same as those used in different articles, for example, electric motors, roller skates, and automobiles.

The shaft is held in place by the bearings that should be designed so they can withstand all the loads generated by the rotation of the impeller. Also, they have to be estimated to offer a suitable service life.

Bearing failures are a typical reason for pump personal time. Therefore, architects and end-clients are often keen on the specific details of the design of the bearing configurations.

There are various types of bearings:

Roller bearings

These bearings use cylindrical shape rollers between moving components. This decreases grinding and helps support radial and axial load.

Ball Bearings

Ball bearings apply balls to help the development of parts. Although uncomplicated in design, they are appropriate for high speeds and are easy to maintain.

Sleeve Bearings

Sleeve bearings are applicable for high speeds. These bearings are just ideal for radial loads and are designed to float.

Babbitt Bearings

This bearing is a type of sleeve bearing coated in Babbitt metal. It is ordinarily used in pumps, turbine generators, fans, and motors.

Pivot Shoe Bearings

Pivot shoe bearings, also called slant shoe bearings, are suitable to handle axial loads and act as pushed bearings in powerful centrifugal pumps.

What Type of Motor Is Used to Power Centrifugal Pumps?

DC shunt motors are almost constant-speed motors. In this way, it is used to drive constant speed line shafts, lathes, centrifugal pumps, paper-making machines, and small print machines, among others.

What Does Pump Coupling Mean?

Motor drive shafts are associated with rotating pump shafts by pump couplings, which enable the motor to transmit power to the pump productively. A nearby coupled pump does not need a separate coupling since the motor is straightforwardly attached to the pump on a single shaft.

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